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What Caused India’s Devastating Second Wave?

What Is Going On In India?

The situation. India is in the throes of a second major Covid-19 surge that has hit faster and harder than the first wave did. That is often how viral pandemics behave. This catastrophic second wave came after a strict lockdown of the country in early 2020 following the first wave. In January 2021 India’s Prime Minister Modi declared that the lockdown had succeeded and that they had defeated the virus, and he re-opened the country. Until March, India was recording barely 13,000 new COVID-19 cases a day, fewer than Germany or France, and a drop in the bucket for a nation of 1.4 billion people. A few weeks after Modi’s victory declaration, however, daily cases began slowly climbing, then in late March they exploded, becoming a vertical line rather than an upward sloping curve. By mid-April India reported 315,000 new cases in one day, setting a world record. Yesterday (May 5) India set yet another record with 3700 daily deaths, according to the Johns Hopkins University tracker. The case and death rates are still climbing. Today, almost 50% of the world’s new cases come from India, according to the WHO.

India has reported 2,000-4,000 COVID-19 deaths a day for several weeks now. Since the country’s health infrastructure is poor, this likely represents a significant undercount of the mortality. As of April 30, the official total death count was around 200,000. However, the official tallies do not reflect the thousands in poor and rural areas who cannot get medical care and die at home and are not counted. For example, in just one day at one crematorium in Bhopal, workers cremated 110 COVID-19 victims, but the official total death toll for the city was just 10. Experts suspect that the total death toll in India is 1-2 million.

The second wave of the pandemic also has overwhelmed hospitals across India. Securing a hospital bed, even for the critically ill, is nearly impossible. Hospitals put up signs declaring they have no beds, and families in large cities have to search for days to find beds, often hundreds of miles away. Sick people die on the roads outside hospitals and in traffic jams created by ambulances ferrying critically ill patients in search of a bed. There are images of patients gasping for oxygen while waiting to see a doctor.

Because getting admitted to a hospital is so difficult now, patients who are admitted are much sicker than in India’s first wave. The average temperature readings of second wave patients are 2 to 3 degrees higher than they were during the first wave when temperatures averaged 100-101 degrees Fahrenheit. Blood oxygen levels of recently admitted patients run lower than they did last year meaning the patients are more critical and in greater need of oxygen. The patients are also younger this time around, between the ages of 35 and 45, and often without other pre-existing conditions.

Critical healthcare necessities are in short supply in India, from intensive care beds, medicine, oxygen, and ventilators. Delhi hospitals have tweeted messages appealing for oxygen. At one Delhi hospital, 20 critically ill patients died after the hospital’s oxygen delivery was delayed seven hours. Families are often told that they have to provide their own oxygen for hospitalized family members or take them home. In a video post, the director of a hospital said they had 60 patients in need of oxygen with only two hours of supply left.

Help for India has been offered by several countries, including the US, UK, Germany and even from India’s archrival Pakistan, which offered ventilators, oxygen supply kits, digital X-ray machines, PPE, and related items.

Bottom line. This is a snapshot of what things look like in India now, almost a year and a half after the virus first introduced itself to the world. In January, India believed that its strict lockdown measures had defeated the virus. They did not. How the more deadly second wave of the virus and disease appeared, almost overnight, will be the topic of the next blog post. It should concern all of us, because it could also happen here.

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